Payment cards in Europe and their meetings in R

The spch of credit cards and the Charge Card in the United States and their rapid expansion into Europe (Barclays Bank et al. – see past dl) and on other continents inspired vdsk banks and hoteliers. The important banking group Wallenberg, which has a connection to the widow’s royal family, was involved in the creation of the Rikskort credit card in 1964.

Young, purchase, spending (c) profimedia.cz/corbis

This card was created in response to the rapid expansion of American Express cards in Europe and was intended for payment in hotels, travel agencies and restaurants. A year later, Eurocard International, based in Brussels, became the holding company. In 1968, Eurocard entered into a strategic partnership with the American Master Charge Association.

In 1974, the British Access system became a member of Eurocard International and in 1977 the French Carte Verde. In 1978, at the initiative of Deutsche Bank, Eurocard was reorganized and European banks became its shareholders and took over its wives. 10 years later, MasterCard bought a 12.25% stake in Eurocard International, consolidating a strong partnership.

He made significant changes in the first of 1992. Eurocard merged with eurocheque to form Europay International. In 1997, it concluded a new strategic partnership agreement with MasterCard. Both Eurocard and Europay have long gained control of MasterCard products in Europe. With the exception of the United Kingdom, which was part of MasterCard International, continental Europe remained under the position of European banks.

In the years 19911996, European banks negotiated with their American colleagues about the inclusion of Europay in the MasterCard structure. This connection would reduce the operating costs of authorized and network centers, would make it easier to implement the MasterCard product, and the unification of trademarks would simplify marketing communication. One was not due to the fact that MasterCard offered the Europay name day according to the voting first, because it did not invest in turnover. debit card.

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One moved and in the late 1990s with the arrival of diplomatic President MasterCard Bob Salender and new Europay President Petr Hoch. Europay and MasterCard have announced that they are working to link the two associations with the goal of reducing costs and improving women. The mergers were approved by the members of both associations in the summer of 2002 and formally approved on July 15, 2002. Europay International became the new region of MasterCard Europe. MasterCard International itself has also become a private joint stock company, which distinguishes it from VISA International, which has remained a non-profit company.

NMECKO

Germany became a non-drinking country in the late 1960s kreditn karty and introduced payment cards only to a limited extent, but preferred and supported the introduction of a pan-European guarantee system (see past dl). Euroekas (eurocheque ec) were introduced by German banks among their products to bnm tm in 1972. And by 1980, euro banknotes had been processed in the clearinghouse.

In 1986, German banks first introduced online ATMswho paid pensions on ec cards. In the late 1970s, some banks issued their first Eurocard cards in Germany. The further development of payment cards was positively influenced by the establishment of Gesellschaft fr Zahlungsysteme (GZS) in 1982. GZS represented about 3,000 German banks and savings banks in the Eurocard and Eurocheque International associations on behalf of banks (its shares) and until 1991 was a monopoly issuer of these cards and processing. center. At the same time, GZS concluded agreements on the acceptance of Eurocard / MasterCard cards with stores in Germany (so-called acquier).

In its management, commercial banks, non-profit banks and savings banks were represented in a ratio of 3: 3: 2. Because the leading German banks, Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank and Commerzbank, which accounted for 70% of GZS’s income and income, had only a limited shareholding (33% of the vote) and other partners were unwilling to change this situation. individual banks and from GZS to create a mere processing center. Since 1996, there has been a discussion among German banks as to whether it would not be appropriate to sell GZS to some companies specializing in the processing of card transactions (Signet, FDRL, etc.).

In 1996, GZS started issuing VISA cards and since 1999 has been ensuring their acceptance in stores. In 1997, the company was restructured, which was divided into an operating company (GZS) and a licensing and trading company EURO Kartensysteme. In 2002, GZS provided services to 2,300 German banks and savings banks, for which it provided services for more than 7.6 million VISA and MasterCard cards. It currently provides services for about 300,000 stores in Germany. Its turnover reached EUR 60 billion.

The first VISA cards in Germany were issued by Bank of America in 1981. Later, the Spanish company Banco Santander entered the market, which began to provide VISA cards in stores. In 1998, the ec cards were supplemented with the Maestro logo, which was followed by a rapid decline in euro payments, which replaced the more convenient and worldwide payments in stores accepting Maestro cards.

PAYMENT CARD MARKET IN EUROPE

By the mid-1980s, three groups of countries had formed in Europe according to their preferred type of card:

1. Kreditn karty were introduced in Great Britain and Ireland in the 70s and 80s. years. In continental Europe, they began to develop in the late 1990s (France, Germany, Scandinavia, Spain) due to the entry of American banks into the market or as a prevention of local banks before their entry.

2. Debit card France pioneered them in Europe, followed by other European countries (Germany, Belgium, the Czech Republic, etc.) in the 1990s.

3. Euroeky were mainly clients in Germany, Austria and the Benelux countries. The countries that did not take them out, but they were their biggest recipients (thanks to tourism), were Spain and Italy. At the beginning of the 1990s, the euro was offered to the countries of Central and Entrance Europe as a one, not to build the necessary infrastructure for ATMs and payment terminals. The Czech Republic and the country rejected this proposal, but accepted the offer of Eurocard International, which helped them build modern infrastructure.

Excerpts from the book
Pavla Juka: Encyclopedia of Payment Cards

1. dl: How to pay securely on the Internet?

Step 2: How did the river come about?

Step 3: How did the pensions come about?

4. dl: How banking originated

5th dl: When did the papyr pension arise?

6. dl: Pensions and echoes: when was the crown created?

7. dl: How are banknotes printed?

8. dl: Protection of banknotes against counterfeiting

9. dl: How and where the payment cards were created

10. dl: How payment cards were created-II

Debt 11: Who issued the first universal payment card

Debt 12: When did banks start issuing cards

13th dl: How MasterCard cards were created

14. dl: How the VISA cards were created

DL 15: The role of payment cards in Europe

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ryvek is from the bookEncyclopedia of payment cardsvydan nakladatelstvm City Publishing, who published publications in the FINANCE edition such as:
Make a investment, 2nd born ed
Investovn pro zatenky
Financial Mathematics Pro, 5.vydn